The Mount of Olives is a ridge situated just East of Jerusalem’s old town, very close to the site of the Temple. It is significant for its role as an ancient Jewish burial ground, and as a prominent area in scripture.
In the Old Testament, the Mount of Olives is explicitly associated with King David and Solomon. In the New Testament the Mount is significant because Jesus visits it several times: visiting Lazarus, the Triumphal Entry, praying before his arrest, and his ascension (among others). According to Ezekiel and Acts, Jesus will stand on the mount of olives when he returns in glory.
That the mount of olives is still easily accessible today provides a valuable religious opportunity for pilgrims, and as a result the Mount is very popular. It is also home to several churches of various denominations, while the Jewish burial ground is still in use today. Local religious tensions have resulted in some damage to the ancient burial ground, but organisations have been set up to help protect the site.