The Holy of Holies was the inner sanctuary of the Jerusalem Temple, thus it was perhaps the most important place for Israelites.
Unfortunately the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70CE, meaning that historians and scholars are unable to visit and physically investigate the site; so to discover the purpose and importance of this place, written sources must be considered.
The Bible is one such source, and it details the genesis of the Holy of Holies in the account of Moses on Mt. Sinai and the creation of the Tabernacle. More than simply helping us to understand the layout and composition of the Holy of Holies, the Bible also reveals its significance in the Israelite religion. It enables us to imagine the rituals which took place there, and shows just how sacred the site was seen to be.
The Holy of Holies was so sacred to the Israelites as it was seen as God's resting place on the earth. It was incredibly significant for both religion and society, and was essentially the center of the Israelite faith. Hence, it is a worthy artifact to investigate.
Exhibit title image: Zippori Mosaic representing Holy of Holies. From: http://www.pomegranate-travel.com/private-tours-israel/